Betsy Porter

Betsy Porter
Art and Iconography

Inscriptions, Books, And Scrolls

INSCRIPTIONS are integral to icons, identifying the saint(s) and/or events(s) pictured, and telling us viewers the meaning and intention of the icon.

The words in a scroll or book usually come from an important passage in the saint's own teaching.

Books and scrolls function similarly to the "balloons" in comic strips - but their words are experienced as a message from the heart of the saint straight into our own listening hearts.

Borders and backgrounds provide space for more inscriptions, which should typically include identification of the icon's subject. Other sources for inscriptions abound - Biblical passages appropriate to the subject, beloved hymns and prayers, spiritual commentary both historical and contemporary. The Psalms are a particularly rich source for border inscriptions - not only for their varied subjects and rhythmic poetry, but because of their structure of parallel verses of similar length, which can fit neatly onto the opposing borders of the icon. Plan ahead! Short inscriptions will be easiest.

If you prefer to paint your inscription in Cyrillic alphabet or in a historic font, a web search for images of your subject will usually bring up historic icons with appropriate lettering which you can use as a guide.

Lettering For Your Icon

Although previous artistic experience is not required for icon painting, some training in calligraphy or graphic arts is a great help when it comes to lettering.

Before applying lettering to your icon, practice on paper. It may require several tries to establish the proper size of the lettering, the length of the lines, and their position on the icon. For scrolls and open books, lettering may need to be slanted or even curved to look correct.

All major persons appearing in an icon should be identified by name; or in the case of Mary and Jesus, by abbreviations of their names. The name is usually inscribed on the background near the person's head, but may appear in a margin. In addition, the person may be holding a scroll or a book.

The usual color for lettering is bright red or dark red on a light background. I've had trouble with dark blue lettering; it tends to bleed onto a light ground when olifa is applied. On a dark background, lettering may be light gold or any contrasting light color.

Let the background color set up thoroughly before lettering! If you should make an error, remove most of the incorrect lettering with a slightly damp Q-tip, and let the background dry before trying again.

The lettering in some of these examples is much more attractive than mine!

Paul Fromberg uses dramatic large-scale lettering to identify Christ the Teacher; the bold inscriptions become an integral part of the icon. Scroll down for a detail of the book.

The multiple figures and active background of The Presentation in the Temple presented artistic challenges as to how to position the inscriptions.

Identification for Mary and the Christ Child appears on the background. Saints Joseph, Simeon, and Anna are identified in the margins.

TWO SCROLLS by Tom Hodgson

John the Baptist

Prophet Ezekiel

SCROLL by Mary Plaster

John the Baptist

Prophets and other Biblical figures are often depicted with a scroll bearing a passage from their teachings or writings.

These SCROLLS (like those illustrated above) may be depicted in gravity-defying positions - the spirit behind the messages seems to hold them aloft!

Open Books For Christ The Teacher

Betsy Porter

Betsy Porter

Paul Fromberg

Jesus is often depicted with a book, and so are saints who are known for their teaching. The book may be opened to reveal a revered passage. Books are held in the left hand, to leave the right hand free for teaching.

Many saints, especially bishops, are shown with a closed Gospel book, magnificently bound. The hand that holds the book may be covered with draped cloth, indicating the holiness and importance of the book.

Gospel books were extremely precious, being individually transcribed by hand and beautifully bound, sometimes in a golden cover adorned with jewels. They may be held closed with straps. Edges of the pages are usually bright red. Like other rectangular solids, books may be shown in inversed perspective.

Below are several icons featuring closed books; and a detail of the gospel book held by Saint Gregory of Nyssa.

Inscriptions in the borders can help clarify the intent of an icon, further describe the saint and her work, or give the icon additional interest, poignancy, and depth.

Paul Fromberg spent many hours planning and painting the beautiful border inscription on his Epitaphios icon.

When you have completed inscriptions and other Finishing Touches, let your icon rest for a week or so before Applying Olifa

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